Client claims against investment dealers are almost always settled by contractual arbitration clauses, as securities dealers are required to settle disputes with their clients, in accordance with the terms of their affiliation with self-regulatory bodies such as the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (formerly NASD) or the NYSE. Companies then began to include in their customer agreements arbitration agreements that required their customers to settle disputes.   Contracts are agreements that set out conditions and are intended to hold each party to account. They normally need to be signed by both the sender and the receiver to activate the terms of the agreement, show that they accept the terms of the contract and make them valid, although there are some forms of contracts that do not necessarily have to be signed for a court to find the contract valid. . . .