The Northern Ireland Protocol, known as the Irish Backstop, was an annex to the November 2018 draft agreement outlining provisions to avoid a hard border in Ireland after the UK`s withdrawal from the European Union. The protocol provided for a provision of the safety net to deal with the circumstances in which satisfactory alternative arrangements were to come into force at the end of the transition period. This project has been replaced by a new protocol that will be described as follows. The new political declaration sets out the framework for future relations between the European Union and the United Kingdom and reflects the Government`s desire to conclude an ambitious, comprehensive, deep and flexible partnership on trade and economic cooperation with the EU, with a free trade agreement with the EU, in addition to security agreements and other areas of cooperation. The EU and the UK have reached an agreement on the withdrawal agreement with a revised protocol on Ireland and Northern Ireland (abolition of the « backstop ») and a revised political declaration. On the same day, the European Council (Article 50) approved these texts. On 22 October 2019, the House of Commons agreed, by 329 votes to 299, to give a second reading to the revised withdrawal agreement (negotiated by Boris Johnson earlier this month) but, when the accelerated timetable it proposed did not receive the necessary parliamentary support, Johnson announced that the legislation would be overturned. [38] [12] On 15 November 2018, the day after the agreement was presented and the support of the British government cabinet, several members of the government resigned, including Dominic Raab, Secretary of State for leaving the European Union. [28] The British Parliament approved the draft agreement by adopting 2020 implementing laws (The European Union Withdrawal Agreement (Withdrawal Agreement) 2020 Act. Following the signing of the agreement, the UK Government adopted and tabled the UK`s ratification instrument on 29 January 2020. [7] The agreement was ratified by the Council of the European Union on 30 January 2020, after approval by the European Parliament on 29 January 2020.